BY JOSHUA MCMORROW-HERNANDEZ

Born during the Gold Rush in the late 1840s and lasting into the Gilded Age of the 1880s, the United States gold dollar is one of the most complex 19th-century series. Gold dollars, conceptualized in the early 1790s by Alexander Hamilton, were formally proposed numerous times in Congress during the 1830s and 1840s and finally authorized by the Gold Coinage Act of March 3, 1849. Regular-issue gold dollars were minted for forty years, from 1849 through 1889, and all three of the major gold dollar varieties struck during that period were designed by United States Mint Chief Engraver James B. Longacre.

The first variety, the Liberty Head gold dollar, was issued from 1849 through early 1854 and is physically tiny by any standard. These first gold dollars weigh just 1.672 grams and measure only 13 millimeters in width-the smallest diameter of any circulating United States coin. Like all regular-issue United States gold coins of the mid-19th century, the gold dollar’s composition is a 90 percent gold and 10 percent copper alloy.

Reception of the new gold dollar was somewhat mixed. A review in the May 19, 1849 edition of the New York Weekly Tribune called the gold dollar, “undoubtedly the neatest, tiniest, lightest coin in this country […] it is too delicate and beautiful to pay out for potatoes, and sauerkraut, and salt pork.” However, the coin’s diminutive physical size concerned Willis’ Bank Note List, declaring “there is no probability of them ever getting into general circulation; they are altogether too small.”

GOLD DOLLARS TRICKLE INTO CIRCULATION

Their small size didn’t stop gold dollars from entering commerce. All four operating United States Mint facilities of the period-those in Philadelphia, Charlotte, Dahlonega, and New Orleans-struck the gold dollar in its first issue year of 1849, with the “Philly” Mint producing the lion’s share. Minor adjustments were made to the coin in 1849, with changes to the wreath on the reverse. Pieces minted earlier in 1849 contain the “Open Wreath” design and those struck later in the year carry the “Closed Wreath” motif. All pieces struck after 1849 bear the Closed Wreath reverse.

The gold dollar circulated well, but many in the public believed the coin was simply too physically small, with numerous accounts of the miniature coins falling through pocket holes and getting lost in purses. The 15-millimeter-wide Indian Princess Head, Small Head gold dollar (widely dubbed the “Type II” gold dollar) came along in 1854 maintaining the same weight and gold fineness as the Type I variety. The coin, however, is much thinner to accommodate its wider diameter. Featuring Longacre’s design of Miss Liberty in a feathered headdress, the Type II gold dollar was modified with a larger bust portrait by the end of 1856 to address strike issues. The Indian Princess Head, Large Head design, or Type III gold dollar, endured until the end of the series in 1889.

A total of 19,499,337 gold dollars were minted, with the vast majority, or 18,223,438, coming from the Philadelphia Mint. Notably, more than half of the Philadelphia issues, or 9,439,073, were struck from 1851 through 1853. Among the branch mints, New Orleans led in output with 1,004,000 pieces. The Charlotte Mint struck 109,138 of the gold dollars, San Francisco made 90,232, and the Dahlonega Mint produced just 72,529 pieces.

COLLECTING GOLD DOLLARS

Gold dollars were popular holiday gifts, and jewelers loved mounting them into necklaces and other fashionable accessories. Proofs were available from the cashier window at the Philadelphia Mint for $1.25 each. Gold dollars were already increasing in value by the turn of the 20th century, as evidenced by an advertisement in the February 1899 issue of The Numismatist offering them for $1.80 apiece. Less than a decade later, in 1908, some coin dealers were buying gold dollars for $2 each.

According to the CDN Collector’s Price Guide (CPG), common specimens have a floor price in About Uncirculated of around $250, while MS-60s list for closer to $300 and up. Prices jump nearly 50 percent for MS-61s and MS-62s to between $400 and $450 (or more), and in MS-63 start around $500, roughly double the MS-60 level.

The most common Philadelphia issues were all made in 1851, 1852, and 1853, with mintages of 3,317,671, 2,045,351, and 4,076,051, respectively. With a mintage of 290,000, the 1851-O and 1853-O gold dollars from New Orleans are tied as the most common of the branch-mint issues. Among the other branches, Charlotte comes in second place, with a highest-mintage of 41,267 for the 1851-C. The San Francisco Mint, which came online in 1854, managed 24,600 examples of the 1856-S, while Dahlonega production of the gold dollar peaked during the coin’s first year, with 21,588 specimens of the 1849-D Open Wreath.

KEY DATES CHALLENGE BUYERS

The key date of the series is the 1849-C Open Wreath Type I gold dol